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Meningitis meningococcal

Meningococcal meningitis is cased by the bacterium Neisseria meningitidis. It can be transmitted through direct contact including airborne droplets from nose and throat of infected persons. 



Reservoir
Humans


Incubation period
3 to 4 days, but can vary from 2 to 10 days.


Signs and Symptoms
  • Fever
  • Intense headache
  • Nausea
  • Vomiting
  • Neck stiffness
  • Petechial or purpuric rash on the trunk and limbs
  • Can lead to sepsis, pneumonia and death.


Diagnosis
Clinical features & blood and CSF culture


Treatment
Prompt treatment with parenteral penicillin (prescribed by medical doctor) in adequate doses should begin when a presumptive clinical diagnosis is made prior to laboratory confirmation.


Control and Prevention
Rifampicin or Ciprofloxacin (prescribed by medical doctor) should be given as prophylaxis to:

  • Eliminate carriage of meningococci in household members and other close contacts, thereby in turn reduce transmission to susceptible individuals who are not carriers.
  • Prevent susceptible contacts from acquiring infection by directly inhibiting colonisation but it could only be effective for 2 days prophylaxis.
  • Treat the newly acquired nasopharyngeal or blood borne infection in contacts who are non-immune and may be incubating the disease.

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