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Meningitis Viral

Viral meningitis is caused by various types of viruses. It is relatively common but rarely leads to serious disease. 

Viruses which can lead to viral meningitis include:
  • Entero-viruses such as echoviruses, coxsackie viruses A and B, polioviruses and the numbered entero-viruses. Non-polio entero-viruses account for over 85% of all viral meningitis cases.
  • Arbo-viruses account for 5%.
  • Mumps virus
  • Herpes simplex and varicella viruses
  • Lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus
  • Adenovirus
  • Measles
  • HIV


Signs and Symptoms

  • Sudden headache
  • Vomiting
  • Fever
  • Confusion
  • Stiff neck
  • Photophobia (eyes sensitive to bright light)
  • Nausea
  • Fatigue
  • Rash
  • Sore throat
  • Myalgia
  • Upper respiratory symptoms


Diagnosis
Lumbar puncture: cerebrospinal culture and sensitivity


Treatment
None for the usual viruses.


Control and Prevention

  • Personal hygiene - Hand washing.
  • No need for quarantine. Isolate as a precaution after 7 days of onset of illness.
  • Investigation of contacts/source of infection indicated.
  • No special need for concurrent disinfection is needed beyond routine sanitary practices.

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