Mumps
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Mumps

Mumps is an acute viral disease caused by mumps virus leading to swelling and tenderness of one or more salivary glands, usually the parotid. 

It usually occurs in children between 5 and 15 years but can also occur in older people. Mumps is more common during the winter and spring seasons.

Mumps virus is transmitted by:
  1. Droplet spread.
  2. Direct contact with saliva of an infected person.


Reservoir
Humans


Incubation period
12 - 25 days (commonly 18 days).


Signs and Symptoms

  • Fever up to 103 degrees
  • Swelling and tenderness of one or more of the salivary glands (usually parotid). Pain gets worse when the child swallows, talks, chews or drinks acidic juices (like orange juice).
  • Headache
  • Loss of appetite
  • No symptoms at all (about 1/3 of cases)
  • Rare complications include: encephalitis, meningitis, arthritis, kidney involvement, inflammation of the thyroid gland and breasts and deafness. Orchitis (inflammation of the testicles) can develop in adolescent and adult males.


Diagnosis

Diagnosis is usually clinical.

Laboratory diagnosis:

  • Detection of mumps IgM antibody.
  • Demonstration of specific mumps antibody response in absence of recent vaccination.
  • Isolation of mumps virus (not vaccine strains) from clinical specimen.
  • Detection of mumps nucleic acid.

Treatment
Usually supportive, antipyretics (tablets to lower the temperature), etc.


Control and Prevention
Children and infected persons should not attend school or workplace up to 9 days following onset of swelling.

Immunisation programme: Live attenuated vaccine is available as single or part of the MMR. 

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