Salmonella
Sign In

Salmonella

 

Salmonella food poisoning is a bacterial food poisoning caused by the Salmonella bacterium. It is found in poultry, eggs, unprocessed milk and in meat and water. It may also be carried by pets like turtles and birds. 

 
Infection results in the swelling of the lining of the stomach and intestines (gastroenteritis).
 
 
Reservoir
A wide range of domestic and wild animals, including poultry, cattle, rodents and pets such turtles, tortoises, chicks, dogs and cats; also humans, i.e. patients, convalescent carriers and especially, mild and unrecognized cases. Chronic carriers are rare in humans but prevalent in animals and birds.
 
 
Incubation period
12 - 36 hours.
 
 
Signs and Symptoms
     
  • Diarrhoea or constipation
  • Headaches
  • Stomach cramps
  • Nausea and vomiting
  • Fever
  • Possibly, blood in the stool
 
 
Diagnosis
History of raw food ingestion, clinical picture, and stool culture.
 
 
Treatment
Fluid replacement when indicated. Antibiotics used only when prescribed by medical doctor (generally in severe cases). Some cases may required hospitalisation.
 
 
Control and Prevention
Educate food handlers on the importance of:
 
     
  • Proper hand washing before and after food preparation.
  • Refrigerating prepared foods in small containers
  • Thoroughly cooking all foodstuffs derived from animal sources, particularly poultry, pork, egg products and meat dishes
  • Avoiding recontamination within the kitchen after cooking is completed
  • Maintaining a sanitary kitchen and protecting prepared foods against rodent and insect contamination
  • Educate the public to avoid consuming raw or incompletely cooked eggs, and using dirty or cracked eggs.
  • Exclude individuals with diarrhoea from food handling and from care of hospitalized patients, the elderly and children.