Acquired Components
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Acquired Components

Have you ever thought that when you donate blood, with one donation you are actually helping three persons?

This is possible through technological developments and research done years ago and was found out that whole blood donation can be separated into different products to make it last longer and be more beneficial.

Thus each donation may be separated into the following products:

Leucodepleted red cell concentrate
Processed Red cells, filtered and processed to reduce white cells to a minimum.

B) Plasma which can be further seperated into:

Processed fresh plasma filtered to reduce white cells to a minimum.

or

Processed plasma filtered to reduce white cells to a minimum.

C) Pooled Platelets

Processed pool of 5 buffy coats, to produce a pool of filtered platelets.

Through other procedures/donations such as plateletpheresis we can produce other products such as:

 
Platelets extracted directly from a donor using apheresis equipment. This involves the donor having to stay hooked to this equipment for about 2 hours to produce good quality platelets which would still need to be further processed for optimum quality.
 
Each of these products has to be stored in different temperatures and all have a different shelf life.
 
 
Definition: A component obtained by removing the majority of leucocytes from a red cell preparation.
 
Methods of preparation: Various techniques are used to produce this preparation including buffy coat depletion and filtration. The best results are currently achieved using a combination of both these methods.
 
Storage: After collection, blood should be kept under controlled temperature between 20C and 60C. Temperature should not exceed 100C. Expiry date under these condition depends on the anticoagulant used. Example: using CPDA-1 the storage time is 35 days.
 
Alternatively, whole blood can be kept up to 24hrs in controlled temperature of between 200C and 240C, before being processed.
 
Definition: A component for transfusion prepared either from whole blood or from plasma collected by apheresis, frozen within a period and to a temperature that will maintain the labile coagulation factors functional.

Methods of preparation: Plasma is separated from whole blood collected using a blood bag with integral transfer packs, employing hard spin centrifugation, preferably within 6 hours and not more than 18 hours after collection, if the unit is refrigerated. The plasma is then separated in other transfer bag to be immediately frozen.

Another method is obtaining plasma directly from the donor through apheresis, where the donor is 'connected' to a machine which takes his whole blood, separates the plasma and stores it in a bag, returning back his red cells.

Storage & Stability: The stability on storage is dependent on the storage temperature. Optimal storage temperature is at -250C or lower.
 
Permitted storage times and temperatures:
 
(a) 36 months storage at temperatures below -250C
 
(b) 3 months storage at temperatures of -18C to -250C.
 
 
 
Definition: A component prepared from plasma by the removal of cryoprecipitate.
Methods of preparation: Frozen plasma/ cryo-depleted plasma is the byproduct of the preparation of cryoprecipitate from fresh frozen plasma.

Storage & Stability: The stability on storage is dependent on the storage temperature. Optimal storage temperature is at -250C or lower.
 
Permitted storage times and temperatures:
 
(a) 24 months storage at temperatures below -250C.
 
(b) 3 months storage at temperatures of -180C to -250C.
 
 
 
Definition: A component derived from fresh whole blood that contains the most of the original platelet content in a therapeutically effective form.
 
Methods of preparation:
 
1) Preparation of Platelet rich plasma (PRP): where a unit of fresh whole blood of not more than 24hrs, kept at a temperature between 200C and 240C, is centrifuged so that an optimal number of platelets remain in plasma while the leucocytes and red cells are reduced to a minimum.
 
2) Preparation of platelets from Platelet rich plasma: Platelets in PRP are sedimented by hard spin centrifugation. The Platelet poor plasma (PPP)/supernatant is removed leaving only 50-70mls of PPP with the platelets concentration. The platelets are allowed to disaggregate and then resuspended.
 
3) Preparation of platelets from buffy coat: Whole blood stored between 200C to 240C for up to 24 hours is centrifuged so that platelets are sedimented in the buffy coat layer together with the leucocytes. A pool of same blood grouped of 4 to 6 buffycoats are further processed to seperate the platelets from the redcells and leucocytes, filtered and suspended in an additive nutrient solution.
 
Storage & Stability: Platelets must be stored in plastic bags intended for platelet storage having the characteristic of being permeable to gases for oxygen availability for platelets. During storage pH must remain between 6.8 to 7.4 and they must be continuously agitated in an appropriate equipment, with a temperature of between +200C to +240C . Platelets can be stored for 5 days under the above parameters.
 
 
Filtered Single Donor Platelets
 
Definition: A component obtained by platelet apheresis of a single donor using automated cell separation equipment.
 
Methods of preparation: Platelets extracted directly from the donor using an apheresis equipment. This involves the donor having to stay hooked to this equipment for about 1 hour to produce good quality platelets which would still need to be further processed for better quality.
 
Storage & Stability: Platelets must be stored in plastic bags intended for platelet storage having the characteristic of being permeable to gases for oxygen availability for platelets. During storage pH must remain between 6.8 to 7.4 and they must be continuously agitated in an appropriate equipment, with a temperature of between 200C to 240C. Platelets under the above parameters can be stored for 5 days.